Female Hormones

Psychology Today

Health Matters

Women have twice the frequency of depression as men.
Published on April 14, 2010

Women have twice the frequency of depression as men, and are more vulnerable to many psychiatric disorders between puberty and menopause. Menopause and the post partum are time of high vulnerability for women. Women are more likely to be hospitalized or jailed in the days just before menstruation begins. Transdermal estrogen has been proven in three studies to have antidepressant effects (as opposed to oral estradiol). These facts, and others, beg for our attention to the role of female hormones in mental health. When one adds the concerns raised by the woman’s health initiative study of over 160,000 women on synthetic estrogens, one can easily be left in a state of confusion.


About Leslie Carol Botha

Leslie Carol Botha, WHE • Graduate from the National Institute of Whole Health • Co-author of Understanding Your Mind, Mood and Hormone Cycle • Internationally Recognized Expert on Hormones and Behaviors • Member of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research • Program Director for Early Intervention and Prevention for At-Risk Adolescents - Gia Allemand Foundation for PMDD
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2 Responses to Female Hormones

  1. The term estrogen actually refers to a group of 3 hormones: estrone (E1), estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3). Estradiol, the most abundant type of estrogen, is primarily produced in the ovaries. Along with progesterone, it regulates the menstrual cycle and causes the sexual development seen in puberty. In addition to regulating sexual development and function, estrogens influence the function of many other tissues in the body such as the bones, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and blood vessels and serves to regulate several metabolic processes including cholesterol levels and bone growth.

  2. Thank you for your comment. It is crucial that these hormones are in rhythmic synch/balance with each other for optimum functioning and development.

    ‘When our hormones stop humming the tune of the Sun and the moon and start keeping the beat of an artificial environment, our internal systems – which have evolved over millennia to adapt for survival – are being driven by artificial signals…. in the end, losing the beat gets us all.’
    – T.S. Wiley ‘Sex, Lies and Menopause’

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